Atomic Habits

Book Summary

पुस्तक ः एटोमिक ह्याविट्स (सानो बानी)
टाइनी चेन्जेज, रिमार्केबल रिजल्ट्स (सानो परिवर्तन, असाधारण नतिजा)
एन इजी एण्ड प्रुभन वे टु विल्ड गुड ह्याबिट एण्ड ब्रेक ब्याड वन्स (राम्रो बानी बनाउन तथा नराम्रो बानी हटाउन एउटा सजिलो र प्रमाणित उपाय)
लेखक ः जेम्स क्लियर
स्वरुप ः इपब, इन्टरनेट आर्काइभ

आरम्भ देखिनै जेम्सले तपाईंलाई आफ्नो बानी निर्धारण गर्न त्यसलाई एउटा पहिचानको रुपमा लिन सल्लाह दिनुभएको छ । थुप्रै चर्चित उदाहरण दिँदै उहाँले बानी नै आत्म–सुधारको चक्रबृद्धि ब्याज हो भन्नुभएको छ । हरेक दिन एक प्रतिशत राम्रो हुँदा लामो समयमा निकै धेरै गणना हुन्छ । तपाईं भने संयमित हुनुपर्छ । सानो बानी ठूलो प्रणालीको एक भाग हो । यदि तपाईंले राम्रो नतिजा चाहेको हो भने लक्ष्य तय गर्ने कुरा भुल्नहोस् र त्यसको सट्टा प्रणालीमा ध्यान केन्द्रित गर्नुहोस् ।
तपाईंका बानीले तपाईंको पहिचानलाई आकार दिन्छ र त्यसको विपरीत पनि सही हुन्छ । यहाँ परिवर्तनका तीन तह छन् ः (१) नतिजा परिवर्तन, (२) प्रक्रिया परिवर्तन, (३) पहिचान परिवर्तन । तपाईंका बानी परिवर्तनको सबैभन्दा राम्रो तरिका तपाईंले के प्राप्त गर्न खोज्नुभएको छ भन्ने कुरामा नभइ तपाईं के बन्न चाहनुभएको भन्ने कुरामा ध्यान केन्द्रित गर्नु हो । तपाईंको सबैभन्दा राम्रो संस्करण तयार गर्न तपाईंले निरन्तर रुपमा आफ्नो विश्वासमा सम्पादन गर्नुपर्छ र आफ्नो पहिचानलाई सुधार र विस्तार गर्नुपर्छ ।
चारवटा सरल पाइलाबाट तपाईं आफ्ना राम्रा बानी बनाउन सक्नुहुन्छ ः (१) स्पष्ट बनाउनुहोस्, (२) आकर्षक बनाउनुहोस्, (३) सरल बनाउनुहोस् र (४) सन्तुष्ट पार्ने बनाउनुहोस् ।
पहिला त, तपाईंले चाहना गर्नुभएको कुरा स्पष्ट बनाउनुपर्छ । पर्याप्त अभ्यास गरी, तपाईंको मस्तिष्कले चेतनापूर्वक नसोचे पनि निश्चित नतिजा प्राप्त गर्ने कुराका सङ्केत टिप्न सक्छ । एक पटक हाम्रा बानी स्वचालित भएपछि, हामीले के गरिरहेका छौँ भन्ने कुरामा ध्यान दिन छोड्छौँ ।
दोस्रो त, वातावरणको अर्थ बढी हुन्छ । परिस्थितिमा सानो परिवर्तन गरिदिँदा केही समयपछि बानीमा ठूलो परिवर्तन दिनसक्छ । हरेक बानी सङ्केतबाट आरम्भ हुन्छ । राम्रा बानीका सङ्केत तपाईंका वातावरणमा स्पष्ट बनाउनुहोस् । नयाँ वातावरणमा नयाँ बानी बनाउन सजिलो हुन्छ किन भने तपाईंले पुराना सङ्केतसँग सङ्घर्ष गर्नुपर्दैन । तपाईं स्वयंलाई नियन्त्रण गर्न तपाईंले नराम्रा बानीका सङ्केतप्रति आफ्नो सम्पर्क घटाउनुपर्छ । एक पटक नयाँ बानी बसेपछि त्यसलाई भुल्न सकिन्न ।
तेस्रो त, राम्रा बानी बनाउने कुरालाई तपाईंले आकर्षक बनाउनुपर्छ । कुनै अवसर बढी आकर्षक भयो भने त्यो बानी बन्ने सम्भावना बढी हुन्छ । लोभ पुरस्कारको अपेक्षा हो – प्राप्तिको होइन – त्यसले हामीलाई काम गराउँछ । बढी अपेक्षा भयो भने बढी डोपामाइन सिर्जना हुन्छ ।
तपाईंको बानीलाई आकार दिन तपाईंका परिवार तथा मित्रको पनि भूमिका हुन्छ । हाम्रा लागि कुन बानी आकर्षक हुन्छ भन्ने कुरा हामी रहेको संस्कृतिले निर्धारण गर्छ । हामीसँग समुदायमा उपयुक्त हुने तथा सम्बन्धित हुने बलियो चाहना भएका कारण हाम्रो संस्कृतिले प्रशंसा गरेको र स्वीकृति दिएका बानी बसाल्न हामी चाहन्छौँ । हामी तीन सामाजिक समूहले लिएका बानी नक्कल गर्न चाहन्छौँ ः (१) नजिकका (परिवार र मित्र), (२) धेरै (समुदाय), र (३) शक्तिशाली (स्थान र इज्जत प्राप्त गरेका) । राम्रो बानी बनाउने सबैभन्दा प्रभावकारी कुरामध्ये एक त्यस्तो संस्कृतिमा जोडिनु हो जहाँ ः (तपाईंले चाहना गर्नुभएको बानी सामान्य व्यवहार होस् र (२) समूहसँग मिल्ने तपाईंसँग पहिले देखिनै केही कुरा होस् । यदि व्यवहारले हामीलाई स्वीकृति, सम्मान तथा प्रशंसा दिन्छ भने त्यो हाम्रा लागि आकर्षक हुन्छ ।
तपाईंका नराम्रा बानी खोज्नुहोस् र त्यसलाई सच्याउनुहोस् । जब हामी सकारात्मक अनुभवसँग जोड्छौँ भने बानी आकर्षक हुन्छन् र नकारात्मक अनुभवसँग जोड्छौँ भने अनाकर्षक हुन्छ । कठिन बानीको तत्कालै अगाडि तपाईँलाई आनन्द आउने कुनै काम गरी अभिप्रेरणाको संस्कार सिर्जना गर्नुहोस् । खराब बानीलाई अनाकर्षक बनाउनुहोस् । हरेक व्यवहारको सतहस्तरमा लालसा हुन्छ र गहन स्तरमा उद्देश्य हुन्छ र तपाईंका बानी प्राचीन चाहनाका आधुनिक दिनमा समाधान हुन । नराम्रा बानीलाई अनाकर्षक बनाउन त्यसलाई पन्छाउँदाका फाइदामा जोड दिनुहोस् ।
तपाईंले आफ्ना राम्रा बानीलाई सरल बनाउनै पर्छ र विस्तारै अगाडि बढ्नुपर्छ तर कहिल्यै पछाडि फर्कनु हुन्न । सिकाइको सबैभन्दा प्रभावकारी तरिका भनेको अभ्यास हो, योजना होइन । काम गर्ने कुरामा ध्यान दिनुहोस्, त्यसको गतिमा होइन । पटकपटक दोहो¥याउँदा व्यवहार बढी रुपमा स्वचालित हुने प्रक्रियानै बानी निर्माण हो ।
मानिसको व्यवहारले न्यून प्रयासको नियम पालना गर्छ । कम काम आवश्यक पर्ने विकल्पतर्फ हामी प्राकृतिक रुपमै तानिन्छौँ । सम्भव भएसम्म सही काम गर्न सजिलो हुने वातावरण तयार गर्नुहोस् । राम्रो व्यवहारसँग जोडिएका घर्षण घटाउनुहोस् ।
ढिलाइ गर्ने बानी रोक्नुहोस् । बानी केही सेकेन्ड मै सकिए पनि त्यसको प्रभाव तपाईंको व्यवहारमा मिनेटौँ वा घण्टौँ रहन्छ । धेरै बानी निर्णायक समयमा बन्छ त्यसले तपाईंलाई कि त उत्पादक दिशामा लैजान्छ कि त अनुत्पादक ।
तपाईंले राम्रा बानीलाई नभइनहुने र नराम्रा बानीलाई असम्भव बनाउनुपर्छ । तपाईंको बचनबद्धता वर्तमानमा तपाईंले गर्नुभएको छनौट हो जसले भविष्यमा राम्रो बानी सुनिश्चित गर्छ । भविष्यको व्यवहारलाई सुनिश्चित गर्ने अन्तिम उपाय तपाईंका बानीलाई स्वचालित बनाउनु हो । तपाईंका बानीलाई स्वचालित गर्न प्रविधि प्रयोग गर्ने कुरा तपाईंका सही व्यवहार प्रत्याभूत गर्ने सबैभन्दा भरपर्दो र प्रभावकारी तरिका हो ।
तपाईंका बानीलाई स्वचालित बनाउन त्यसलाई व्यवहार बनाउनुहोस् र तपाईंले त्यसलाई सन्तुष्टि दिने बनाउनै पर्छ । अनुभव सन्तुष्टि दिने भए भने तपाईंले त्यस्तो व्यवहार दोहो¥याउने सम्भवना हुन्छ । मानवको मस्तिष्क पुरस्कार दिन ढिलाइ गर्ने भन्दा तत्कालै पुरस्कार दिने कुरालाई प्राथमिकता दिने गरी विकसित भएको छ । जसलाई तत्कालै पुरस्कृत गरिन्छ त्यसलाई दोहो¥याइन्छ र जसलाई तत्कालै दण्डित गरिन्छ भने त्यसलाई पन्छाइन्छ ।
व्यवहार परिवर्तनका पहिला तीन नियम (१) स्पष्ट पार्ने, (२) आकर्षक बनाउने र (३) सरल बनाउने हुन् – तिनले व्यवहार यस पटक सम्पादन गर्न सहयोग बढाउँछन् । व्यवहार परिवर्तन गर्ने चौँथो नियम भनेको सन्तृष्टि दिने बनाउनु हो । त्यसले अर्कोपटक व्यवहार दोहो¥याउन सहयोग बढाउँछ ।
हरेक दिन राम्रो बानीमा कायम रहन तपाईंलाई सन्तुष्टिको अनुभव हुनुपर्छ र त्यो प्रगति गरिरहेको अनुभव हो । तपाईंले राम्रो बानी गरिरहनुभएको छ कि छैन भन्ने कुरा मापन गर्ने सरल उपाय बानी पत्ता लगाउनु हो, यो पात्रोमा क्रस चिन्ह लगाउने जस्तै हो । बानी पत्ता लगाउने वा मापनका अन्य दृश्यात्मक रूपले तपाईंले प्रगति गरेको स्पष्ट प्रमाण दिएर तपाईंको बानीलाई सन्तुष्टि दिनसक्छ । यसै गरी नराम्रा बानी पीडादायक वा असन्तुष्टियुक्त भए हामी त्यसलाई कमै दोहो¥याउँछौँ । कसैले तपाईंलाई हेरिरहेको छ भन्ने थाहा पाउँदा त्यो शक्तिशाली अभिप्रेरक बन्नसक्छ ।
तपाईंको सफलताका घटना बढाउनुको रहस्य प्रतिस्पर्धाको सही क्षेत्र छनौट गर्नु हो । बानी तपाईंको प्राकृतिक क्षमतासँग मिल्ने भए सजिलो हुन्छ । तपाईंसँग मिल्ने बानी छनौट गर्नुहोस् । तपाईंको बलसँग मिल्ने खेल खेल्नुहोस् । यस्तो प्रकारको खेल नभए एउटा सिर्जना गर्नुहोस् ।
गोल्डिलक नियममा व्यक्तिले आफ्नो क्षमताको नजिकैको काम गरिरहेको अवस्थामा अभिप्रेणा उत्कृष्ट भएको अनुभव गर्छ भनिएको छ । सफलताको सबैभन्दा ठूलो चुनौती असफलता होइन उदासिनता हो । अभिप्रेरित भएको समयमा कसैले पनि कडा काम गर्नसक्छ । उत्तेजक काम नभए पनि काम गरिरहनसक्ने क्षमताले नै फरक पार्छ ।
बानीको माथिल्लो पक्ष भनेको नसोचिकनै काम गर्नसक्नु हो । तल्लो पक्ष भनेको साना गल्तीमा ध्यान दिन रोक्नु हो । बानीसँग जोडिएको सचेत अभ्यासले आधिकारिकता दिन्छ । चिन्तन तथा पुनरावलोकन तपाईंलाई समयसँगै आफ्नो कार्यसम्पादनमा सचेत रहन सघाउने प्रक्रिया हुन् । पहिचानमा जति तपाईं झुण्डिएर रहनसक्नुहन्छ त्यत्ति त्यो भन्दा बाहिर जान कठिन हुन्छ ।
सानो बानीको शक्ति भनेको सानोबाट आरम्भ भएर असाधारण नतिजा दिनु हो ।

 


Khem's thought (Summary)

Book:               Atomic Habits

Tiny Changes, Remarkable Results

An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habit & Break Bad Ones

Author:                        James Clear

Format:                       EPUB format, produced by Internet Archive

 

From the beginning, James has suggested you to take an identity to shape your habit. With plenty of examples, he said habits are the compound interest of self-improvement. Getting one percent better every day counts for a lot in the long-run. You need to be patient. An atomic habit is a little habit that is part of a larger system. If you want better results, forget about setting goals but focus on your system instead.

Your habits shape your identity, but vice versa is also true. There are three levels of habit change: (1) outcome change, (2) process change, and (3) identity change. The most effective way to change your habits is to focus not on what you want to achieve, but on who you wish to become. Becoming the best version of yourself requires you to continuously edit your beliefs, and to upgrade and expand your identity.

You can build your better habits in four simple steps: (1) make it obvious, (2) make it attractive, (3) make it easy, and (4) make it satisfying.

First, you have to make matters that you desire obvious. With enough practice, your brain will pick up the cues that predict certain outcomes without consciously thinking about it. Once our habits become automatic, we stop paying attention to what we are doing.

Second, environment matters more. Small changes in context can lead to large changes in behavior over time. Every habit is initiated by a cue. Make the cues of good habits obvious in your environment. It is easier to build new habits in a new environment because you are not fighting against old cues. To control yourself, you need to reduce exposure to the cue that causes bad habits. Once a good habit is formed, it is unlikely to be forgotten.

Third, you have to make matters leading to good habit formation attractive. The more attractive an opportunity is, the more likely it is to become habit-forming. Temptation is the anticipation of a reward—not the fulfillment of it—that gets us to take action. The greater the anticipation, the greater the dopamine spike.

There are roles of family and friends in shaping your habits. The culture we live in determines which behaviors are attractive to us. We tend to adopt habits that are praised and approved of by our culture because we have a strong desire to fit in and belong to the tribe. We tend to imitate the habits of three social groups: (1) the close (family and friends), (2) the many (the tribe), and (3) the powerful (those with status and prestige). One of the most effective things you can do to build better habits is to join a culture where (1) your desired behavior is the normal behavior and (2) you already have something in common with the group. If a behavior can get us approval, respect, and praise, we find it attractive.

Find and fix the causes of your bad habits. Habits are attractive when we associate them with positive feelings and unattractive when we associate them with negative feelings. Create a motivation ritual by doing something you enjoy immediately before a difficult habit. Make bad habits unattractive. Every behavior has a surface level craving and a deeper underlying motive and your habits are modern-day solutions to ancient desires. Highlight the benefits of avoiding a bad habit to make it seem unattractive.

You must make your good habit easy, you have to walk forward slowly but never backward. The most effective form of learning is practice, not planning. Focus on taking action, not being in motion. Habit formation is the process by which a behavior becomes progressively more automatic through repetition.

Human behavior follows the Law of Least Effort. We will naturally gravitate toward the option that requires the least amount of work. Create an environment where doing the right thing is as easy as possible. Reduce the friction associated with good behaviors.

Try to stop procrastinating. Habits can be completed in a few seconds but continue to impact your behavior for minutes or hours afterward. Many habits occur at decisive moments and either send you in the direction of a productive day or an unproductive one.

You have to make good habits inevitable and bad habits impossible. A commitment is a choice you make in the present that locks in better behavior in the future. The ultimate way to lock in future behavior is to automate your habits. Using technology to automate your habits is the most reliable and effective way to guarantee the right behavior.

To automate a habit and make it your behaviour, you must make it satisfying. We are more likely to repeat a behavior when the experience is satisfying. The human brain evolved to prioritize immediate rewards over delayed rewards. What is immediately rewarded is repeated and what is immediately punished is avoided.

The first three laws of behavior change are (1) make it obvious, (2) make it attractive, and (3) make it easy— increase the odds that a behavior will be performed this time. The fourth law of behavior change —make it satisfying— increases the odds that a behavior will be repeated next time.

To stick with good habits every day you require satisfying feelings that is the feeling of making progress. A habit tracker is a simple way to measure whether you did a habit—like marking an X on a calendar. Habit trackers and other visual forms of measurement can make your habits satisfying by providing clear evidence of your progress. Similarly, we are less likely to repeat a bad habit if it is painful or unsatisfying. Knowing that someone else is watching you can be a powerful motivator.

The secret to maximizing your odds of success is to choose the right field of competition. Habits are easier when they align with your natural abilities. Choose the habits that best suit you. Play a game that favors your strengths. If you can’t find a game that favors you, create one.

The Goldilocks Rule states that humans experience peak motivation when working on tasks that are right on the edge of their current abilities. The greatest threat to success is not failure but boredom. Anyone can work hard when they feel motivated. It’s the ability to keep going when work isn’t exciting that makes the difference.

The upside of habits is that we can do things without thinking. The downside is that we stop paying attention to little errors. Habits added with deliberate practice provide you mastery. Reflection and review is a process that allows you to remain conscious of your performance over time. The tighter we cling to an identity, the harder it becomes to grow beyond it.

The power of atomic habits is it begins with tiny changes but gives remarkable results.

 


Message to the Author

Mr. James Clear,

The Author of Atomic Habits

 

Dear Mr. Clear,

Thank you for mapping human habits and highlighting road to good habit formation for us.

From the beginning, you have recommended us to take an identity to shape our habit. With plenty of examples, you have said – habits are the compound interest of self-improvement. Getting one percent better every day counts for a lot in the long-run.

You have asked us to be patient and stressed that an atomic habit is a little habit that is part of a larger system. You have charted three levels of change: (1) outcome, (2) process, and (3) identity. The most effective way to change our habits is to focus not on what we want to achieve, but on who we wish to become. We can build or better habits in four simple steps by making it: (1) obvious, (2) attractive, (3) easy, and (4) satisfying.

There are roles of family and friends in shaping our habits. We tend to imitate the habits of three social groups: (1) the close (family and friends), (2) the many (the tribe), and (3) the powerful (those with status and prestige). One of the most effective things we can do to build better habits is to join a culture where (1) your desired behavior is the normal behavior and (2) we already have something in common with the group.

Human behavior follows the Law of Least Effort. We will naturally gravitate toward the option that requires the least amount of work. To automate a habit and make it our behaviour, we must make it satisfying. Knowing that someone else is watching us can be a powerful motivator. The Goldilocks Rule states that humans experience peak motivation when working on tasks that are right on the edge of their current abilities. The greatest threat to success is not failure but boredom.

You have concluded that the power of atomic habits is that it begins with tiny changes but gives remarkable results. Thank you,

With best regards,

Khem Sharma